#111 Jewish History in Six Chapters (2)

This Jewish History lecture is the second talk from David Solomon’s six-part overview series. The lecture examines the first five hundred years of the common era (0 to the year 500 or 3760 to 4260 in the traditional Hebraic calendar), known in Jewish History as The Talmudic Period.

This period covers the destruction of the Temple by the Romans; the failure of the Bar Kochba Revolt which destroyed any serious hope of independent Jewish Statehood; the transition to Babylonia as the centre of the Jewish world; and the formation of the Talmud – the most influential Jewish document after the Bible.

The Talmudic Period is divisible into two distinct sub-periods:

  • The Tannaitic, and
  • The Amoraic.

In exploring the Tannaitic Period, David discusses the history of the first century, leading up to the destruction of the Second Temple, as well as:

  • The census revolt
  • The founding of Tiberias
  • Helena of Ediebene
  • Greek-speaking Jewish tensions
  • Caligula’s idol and the delegation of Philo of Alexandria
  • The Great Revolt of 66CE
  • Zealots, sicarii, and others
  • The Kohanim and the Idumeans
  • The arrival of Vespasian and Titus
  • Agrippa II and Berenice
  • Tiberias Julius Alexander (nephew of Philo of Alexandria)
  • The establishment of Yavneh
  • The destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple
  • The last stand at Masada
  • The influence of Yavneh and the rise of Rabbi Akiva
  • The second Jewish revolt
  • The third revolt led by Bar Kochba and supported by the elderly sage Rabbi Akiva, ending in the tragedy at Beitar
  • The renaissance of the rabbis
  • The students of Rabbi Akiva
  • The end of the Tannaitic Period with the compilation and editing of the Mishnah by Rabbi Yehudah HaNassi.

David then explores the Amoraic Period beginning with the career of Abba Arikha (Rav) and the transition of the centrality of Jewish life to Babylonia, which included:

  • The academy of the Sidra
  • The establishment of the Mishna as the central curriculum of study
  • Sura, Nahardea, and Pumbedita.

David discusses the creation of the Gemara, an analytic exploration of the Mishna, and:

  • The importance of the Braitta and the Tosefta
  • The Palestinian Talmud (Talmud Yerushalmi)
  • Rav Ashi, Ravina, and the sealing of the Babylonian Talmud.

He also examines anti-Jewish persecutions in Babylonia at the end of the Talmudic Period and the independent state of Mehoza.

As always, David puts these elements of Jewish History into a broader framework of world history, looking at:

  • The rise of Christianity
  • The division of Rome
  • The adoption of Christianity by Constantine
  • Julian the Apostate
  • The fall of Western Rome and the rise of Byzantium
  • The Persian Empire
  • Zoroastrian religion
  • Gnosticism, Neo-Platonism, and other major ideas.

This is an edited lecture of a live talk given in 2020 for Chabad South Africa and Daminyan Shule in Melbourne. It is the second part of David’s six-part overview series of Jewish History.

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#73 Women in Jewish History: the Second Temple Period

In this absorbing Jewish history lecture, David examines the stories and contributions of nine remarkable, often powerful, Jewish women from the period of the second temple in Jerusalem, including:

  • Queen Esther
  • Judith (Yehudit)
  • Hannah and her seven sons
  • Hannah Maccabee
  • Queen Salome (Shlomtzion)
  • Queen Miriam
  • Queen Mariamne
  • Berenice
  • Drusilla.

David also explains how the changing political and cultural landscape impacted women’s rights, roles, and opportunities during a period that included:

  • Persian rule
  • Hellenic rule
  • Hasmonean rule
  • Roman rule.

Moreover, he provides historical background and context to this time in Jewish history, packed with complex political intrigue, military machinations, civil war, and regime changes.

Watch a video slideshow of the podcast lecture on Youtube below.

    

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#48 Two Temples (part 4)

A Podcast on Tanach (Hebrew Bible) and Jewish History

The arrival of General Pompey into Jerusalem heralded the beginning of the end for the Second Temple and Jewish sovereignty in the Land of Israel. In this podcast episode, timed to coincide with Tisha B’Av, David explores the fascinating drama of the reign of Herod; the rise of Judean resistance to Rome; and the brutal and tragic consequences that came from the inevitable Jewish rebellion. David examines the final extraordinary months and days leading up to the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem and the long-term ramifications of this historic cataclysm for the Jewish people.

Pompey enters the Jerusalem Temple. Painting by Jean Fouquet, after an event recorded by Flavius Josephus in The Antiquities of the Jews. Public Domain.

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#27 Women of the Second Temple Period

David discusses the lives and contributions of several remarkable women who lived during the time of the Second Temple in Jerusalem. Their stories are not only fascinating in themselves, but they shed a light on the era in which they lived. This podcast episode, released in advance of Purim, a festival based in a tale of female leadership and courage, comes from a recorded lecture to Jewish Studies teachers in 2019.

John William Waterhouse: Mariamne Leaving the Judgement Seat of Herod

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